Open standards and common data formats help systems to avoid having the adapter convert to and from every application format. Systems using this method set a common or application-independent format, or they provide a service that does the transformation between different applications and systems.
System integration (SI) is an engineering process concerned with seamlessly interconnecting different subsystems or components as one large system. It ensures that each integrated subsystem functions as required and also add value to the implementation through new functionalities provided by connecting functions of different systems.
For industries that use technology as an enabler, the aggregation of different component systems or subsystems that cooperate to deliver a whole open-platform functionality has been the focus . This is also known as the modular approach to systems building, and this process has always been at the near end of the development cycle. Because systems or subsystems to be integrated may span different fields in software and hardware engineering.